Science & Technology Studies 2021-03-01T07:24:02+02:00 Salla Sariola Open Journal Systems <div class="region region-content-intro"> <div id="block-block-6" class="block block-block"> <div class="content"> <p>Science &amp; Technology Studies is an international peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of scholarly studies of science and technology as socio-material phenomena, including their historical and contemporary production and their associated forms of knowledge, expertise, social organization and controversy. This includes interest in developing Science and Technology Studies' own knowledge production techniques, methodology and interventions. The journal welcomes high quality contributions to that are based on substantial theoretical or empirical engagement with the multidisciplinary field of science and technology studies, including contributions from anthropology, sociology, history, philosophy, political science, educational science and communication studies.</p> <p>Science &amp; Technology Studies is the official journal of the European Association for the Study of Science and Technology (EASST) and the Finnish Association for Science and Technology Studies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> </div> </div> Attaining the Stable Movement of Knowledge Objects through the Swedish Criminal Justice System 2021-03-01T07:19:28+02:00 Corinna Kruse <p>This article thinks with infrastructure about the stable movement of knowledge objects such as crime scene reports, traces, and order forms through the Swedish criminal justice system. Infrastructures span different communities and borders; the criminal justice system is made up of necessarily disparate epistemic cultures. Thus, they share a central concern: Both aim for stable movement from one context to another. Thinking with infrastructure, the article argues, makes it possible to widen analytical focus and capture the structures and the continuous work that resolve the tension between different sites and thus enable the stable movement of knowledge objects. Using sensibilities from infrastructure studies– for the resolution of tensions, for continuous maintenance, and for inequalities – the article argues that the criminal justice system enacts the knowledge objects’ stability across epistemic cultures. In other words, the stable movement of evidence-to-be through the Swedish criminal justice system is the result of infrastructuring, that is, of its continuous creating of conditions that facilitate movement and create and re-create stability. This perspective may be useful for studying the movement of knowledge also in other contexts.</p> 2020-09-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Corinna Kruse Rethinking the ‘Great Divide’ 2021-03-01T07:19:26+02:00 David Moats <p>It is often claimed that the rise of so called ‘big data’ and computationally advanced methods may exacerbate tensions between disciplines like data science and anthropology. This paper is an attempt to reflect on these possible tensions and their resolution, empirically. It contributes to a growing body of literature which observes interdisciplinary collabrations around new methods and digital infrastructures in practice but argues that many existing arrangements for interdisciplinary collaboration enforce a separation between disciplines in which identities are not really put at risk. In order to disrupt these standard roles and routines we put on a series of workshops in which mainly self-identified qualitative or non-technical researchers were encouraged to use digital tools (scrapers, automated text analysis and data visualisations). The paper focuses on three empirical examples from the workshops in which tensions, both between disciplines and methods, flared up and how they were ultimately managed or settled. In order to characterise both these tensions and negotiating strategies I draw on Woolgar and Stengers’ use of the humour and irony to describe how disciplines relate to each others truth claims. I conclude that while there is great potential in more open-ended collaborative settings, qualitative social scientists may need to confront some of their own disciplinary baggage in order for better dialogue and more radical mixings between disciplines to occur.</p> 2020-09-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 David Moats Enacting Maasai and Palaeoanthropological Versions of Drought in Oldupai Gorge, Tanzania 2021-03-01T07:19:23+02:00 Patrick Lee Samson Koromo Julio Mercader Charles Mather <p>While palaeoanthropologists have travelled to Tanzania’s renowned human origins site of Oldupai Gorge for over a century, lasting collaboration has yet to be established with the Maasai pastoralists who inhabit the area. This paper uses actor-network-theory and the concept of enactment to compare palaeoanthropological and Maasai livelihoods and to explore why collaboration has been infrequent. Here we show that both groups’ subsistence strategies had to effectively navigate large political-economic contexts. To support their respective livelihoods, scientists and locals expertly acquired resources in non-scientific and non-pastoral worlds. Both Maasai peoples and researchers created and multiplied reality and ontologies by enacting composite – yet conflicting – versions of hybrid drought. The exigencies associated with palaeoanthropological and Maasai subsistence have hindered meaningful collaboration between the groups, despite the fact that members of both dug in the Gorge to address drought. While the legitimisation of scientific ontologies is ultimately well-intentioned, Maasai drought unfortunately remains unaddressed.</p> 2020-10-07T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Patrick Lee, Samson Koromo, Julio Mercader, Charles Mather Enacting the Pandemic 2021-03-01T07:19:21+02:00 Francis Lee <p>This article has two objectives: First, the article seeks to make a methodological intervention in the social study of algorithms. Today, there is a worrying trend to analytically reduce algorithms to coherent and stable objects whose computational logic can be audited for biases to create fairness, accountability, and transparency (FAccT). To counter this reductionist and determinist tendency, this article proposes three methodological rules that allows an analysis of algorithmic power in practice. Second, the article traces ethnographically how an algorithm was used to enact a pandemic, and how the power to construct this disease outbreak was moved around through by an algorithmic assemblage. To do this, the article traces the assembling of a recent epidemic at the European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention—the Zika outbreak starting in 2015—and shows how an epidemic was put together using an array of computational resources, with very different spaces for intervening. A key argument is that we, analysts of algorithms, need to attend to how multiple spaces for agency, opacity, and power open and close in different parts of algorithmic assemblages. The crux of the matter is that actors experience different degrees of agency and opacity in different parts of any algorithmic assemblage. Consequently, rather than auditing algorithms for biased logic, the article shows the usefulness of examining algorithmic power as enacted and situated in practice.</p> 2020-11-25T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Francis Lee Blok A, Farías I & Roberts C (eds) (2020) The Routledge Companion to Actor-Network Theory. London: Routledge. 458 pages. ISBN: 9781315111667 2021-03-01T07:19:19+02:00 Helen Ruth Verran 2021-01-18T16:52:10+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Helen Ruth Verran Pittinsky Todd L (2019) Science, Technology, and Society: New Perspectives and Directions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 270pages. ISBN 978-1-316-61689-5 2021-03-01T07:24:02+02:00 Josie Coburn 2021-01-18T16:55:01+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Josie Coburn