Science & Technology Studies 2020-05-15T11:24:36+03:00 Salla Sariola Open Journal Systems <div class="region region-content-intro"> <div id="block-block-6" class="block block-block"> <div class="content"> <p>Science &amp; Technology Studies is an international peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of scholarly studies of science and technology as socio-material phenomena, including their historical and contemporary production and their associated forms of knowledge, expertise, social organization and controversy. This includes interest in developing Science and Technology Studies' own knowledge production techniques, methodology and interventions. The journal welcomes high quality contributions to that are based on substantial theoretical or empirical engagement with the multidisciplinary field of science and technology studies, including contributions from anthropology, sociology, history, philosophy, political science, educational science and communication studies.</p> <p>Science &amp; Technology Studies is the official journal of the European Association for the Study of Science and Technology (EASST) and the Finnish Association for Science and Technology Studies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> </div> </div> Expertise and its Tensions 2020-05-15T11:23:34+03:00 Maria Åkerman Jaakko Taipale Sampsa Saikkonen Ismo Kantola Harley Bergroth 2020-05-11T13:26:28+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Maria Åkerman, Jaakko Taipale, Sampsa Saikkonen, Ismo Kantola, Harley Bergroth Online Expert Mediators 2020-05-15T11:22:28+03:00 Claudia Egher <p>Using Collins and Evans’ concept of interactional expertise, this article examines the online activities of three bloggers diagnosed with bipolar disorder. It argues that by combining medical knowledge with their situated experiences, and by utilizing the affordances of blogs, these bloggers have become a new type of stakeholder, the online expert mediator. Collins and Evans’ concept is extended by taking into consideration the role of the medium through which interactional expertise is displayed and by showing that its bi-directional character is more substantial than they had envisaged. The rise of this new stakeholder category denotes a possible turn from community activism to exceptional entrepreneurial selves. Despite views that the internet would have broad democratizing effects, the findings show that the high standing of online expert mediators is not the result of a subversive use of this medium, but of a dynamic alliance with ‘traditional’ experts and of a strong media presence.</p> 2020-05-14T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Claudia Egher Learning to Become an FSC Auditor 2020-05-15T11:23:00+03:00 William Clark Cook Esther Turnhout Severine van Bommel <p>This paper aims to open up the black box of auditing for the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) forest management standard. Specifically, we delve into the early steps of becoming an FSC auditor by examining two auditor training sessions in northern Europe. Using a mix of participant observation and unstructured interviews, the paper subjects the trainings to analysis focusing on the ways in which trainees are taught to become FSC experts. Alongside being an exploratory piece on the nature of FSC auditor training, we show how auditing expertise is a matter of performing objectivity and how interpretation is a key aspect of these performances. Learning how to do interpretation, and what values should guide this interpretation, is part of the training but also poses a challenge to the teachers because these aspects cannot be seen to impinge on the objectivity of auditing. We suggest that the mitigation of these tensions during the performance of objectivity is the hallmark of auditing expertise. We conclude our analysis by discussing expertise as a matter of reflecting on and aligning objectivity, values, and interpretation.</p> 2020-05-14T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2018 William Clark Cook, Esther Turnhout, Severine van Bommel Sensory Science in Tension 2020-05-15T11:21:56+03:00 François-Joseph Daniel <p><span lang="en-GB">For the last 15 years, sensory science has frequently been recommended to industrial actors to monitor odours, assess the quality of the environment and improve their factories’ functioning. Resident “sniffing teams” have been put in place in different contexts to assess odorous pollution. T</span><span lang="en-GB">hese teams are groups of local residents living in the neighbourhoods of industrial facilities, who have been trained to report pollution emissions. This article describes these teams as sensory devices and argues that their functioning relies on the consent of the residents to allow themselves to “be affected differently” by smells – from annoyance to interest and curiosity about odour recognition and reporting activity. This consent, which is based on an </span><span lang="en-US">‘ethic’ of sensing, centered on the sniffers’ own feelings, is </span><span lang="en-GB">delicate, tense and reversible, given the emotionally-loaded contexts of odorous pollution.</span></p> 2020-05-14T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2018 François-Joseph Daniel Affect and Effect in Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration 2020-05-15T11:19:47+03:00 Line Hillersdal Astrid Pernille Jespersen Bjarke Oxlund Birgitte Bruun <p>Research across disciplines is often described as beset with problems of epistemological hierarchies and incommensurable categories. We recognize these problems working in two large interdisciplinary research projects on obesity and cholesterol lowering medicine in Denmark. We explore the affective tensions that arise in concrete situations when we meet other researchers around a shared research object. We propose that sensitivity towards such differences, and exploration of the affects they foster, can generate new epistemological and political openings. Analysing four interdisciplinary situations we suggest that embodied experiences of amusement, awkwardness, boredom and doubts are signposts of both differences <em>and</em> connections between people and concerns. Inspired by Haraway’s notion of “response-ability” (1997) and Verran’s concept of “generative critique” (2001) we propose that attention to affective tensions in interdisciplinary research collaboration can be generative of effects not only on modes of collaboration, but also on the ways we engage the world as researchers.</p> 2020-05-14T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Line Hillersdal, Astrid Pernille Jespersen, Bjarke Oxlund, Birgitte Bruun Realizing the Basic Income 2020-05-15T11:20:19+03:00 Bonno Pel Julia Backhaus <p>Current social innovation initiatives towards societal transformations bring forward new ways of doing and organizing, but new ways of knowing as well. Their efforts towards realizing those are important sites for the investigation of contemporary tensions of expertise. The promotion of new, transformative ways of knowing typically involves a large bandwidth of claims to expertise. The attendant contestation is unfolded through the exemplar case of the Basic Income, in which the historically evolved forms of academic political advocacy are increasingly accompanied by a new wave of activism. Crowd-funding initiatives, internet activists, citizen labs, petitions and referenda seek to realize the BI through different claims to expertise than previous attempts. Observing both the tensions between diverse claims to expertise and the overall co-production process through which the Basic Income is realized, this contribution concludes with reflections on the politics of expertise involved in transformative social innovation.</p> 2020-05-14T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Bonno Pel, Julia Backhaus Collaborative Confusion among DIY Makers 2020-05-15T11:20:51+03:00 Eeva Berglund Cindy Kohtala <p>Eco-oriented makers and grassroots subcultures experimenting with digital fabrication technologies, and other activists designing sustainable futures, are increasingly the subject of research. As they address problems of environmental sustainability beyond institutional contexts, their work may appear vague, even confused, yet their activities are underpinned by intense and principled commitment. Working through their confusion, many maker communities build new understandings about what ‘sustainability’ could mean. We argue that herein lie important resources for new knowledge, and further that ethnography is the ideal way to track these processes of learning and knowledge production. The ethnographer participates in local confusion, over values and the definitions of sustainability, but also about what constitutes useful knowledge. Supported by STS (and other) literature on environmental expertise, we argue that maker communities' own acknowledgement of this vagueness actually makes possible a position from which epistemological authority can be reasserted.</p> 2020-05-14T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Eeva Berglund, Cindy Kohtala From Barracks to Garden Cities 2020-05-15T11:21:27+03:00 Sophy Bergenheim <p>This article examines how Väestöliitto, the Finnish Population and Family Welfare League, developed into a housing policy expert during the 1940s and 1950s. Through frame analysis, I outline how Väestöliitto constructed urbanisation and ‘barrack cities’, i.e. an urban, tenement-based environment, as a social problem and how, respectively, it framed ‘garden cities’ as a solution. In the 1940s, Väestöliitto promoted a national body for centralised housing policy and national planning. When the ARAVA laws (1949) turned out to be a mere financing system, Väestöliitto harnessed its expertise into more concrete action. In 1951, together with five other NGOs, Väestöliitto founded the Housing Foundation and embarked on a project for constructing a model city. This garden city became the residential suburb Tapiola. This marked a paradigm shift in Finnish town planning and housing policy, which had until then lacked a holistic and systematic approach. Along the 1940s–1950s, Väestöliitto thus constructed and developed its expertise from an influential interest organisation to a concrete housing policy actor.</p> 2020-05-14T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Sophy Bergenheim Kevin LaGrandeur, James J. Hughes (eds) (2017) Surviving the Machine Age. Intelligent Technology and the Transformation of Human Work. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. 166 pages. ISBN: 978-3-319-84584-5 2020-05-15T11:24:07+03:00 Claudio Gutierrez 2020-05-11T13:25:22+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Claudio Gutierrez Varun Sivaram (ed) (2018) Digital Decarbonization: Promoting Digital Innovations to Advance Clean Energy Systems. New York: Council on Foreign Relations. 146 pages. ISBN: 97 80876097489 2020-05-15T11:24:36+03:00 Jacob Parker 2020-05-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jacob Parker